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Glossary of terms

Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter.

A

Adjudication

The legal process of resolving a dispute. The formal giving or pronouncement of a judgement or decree in a court proceeding, which also includes the judgement or decision given. The entry of a decree by a court in respect to the parties in a case. It implies a hearing by a court, after notice, of legal evidence on the factual issue(s) involved.

Adjudication

The legal process of resolving a dispute. The formal giving or pronouncement of a judgement or decree in a court proceeding, which also includes the judgement or decision given. The entry of a decree by a court in respect to the parties in a case. It implies a hearing by a court, after notice, of legal evidence on the factual issue(s) involved.

Affirmative action

A range of formal measures mandated by law or official policy, usually for a fixed or determined period, in order to give preferential treatment to specific individuals or groups so as to bring them to the same level as others, without intending thereby to disadvantage others.

Affirmative action

A range of formal measures mandated by law or official policy, usually for a fixed or determined period, in order to give preferential treatment to specific individuals or groups so as to bring them to the same level as others, without intending thereby to disadvantage others.

Appeal

A request made to a higher electoral dispute resolution body to confirm, reverse or modify a decision made by a lower electoral dispute resolution body.

Appeal

A request made to a higher electoral dispute resolution body to confirm, reverse or modify a decision made by a lower electoral dispute resolution body.

Audit trail

A sequence of verifiable records that are maintained to track activities, for example, movement and numbers of electoral materials, tabulation of electoral results, changes to computerized records, maintenance of financial records and determination of policies.

Audit trail

A sequence of verifiable records that are maintained to track activities, for example, movement and numbers of electoral materials, tabulation of electoral results, changes to computerized records, maintenance of financial records and determination of policies.

B

Ballot

The paper(s) on which voters mark their choice(s) on election day. The design of the ballot will depend on the electoral system used in a country or state.

Ballot

The paper(s) on which voters mark their choice(s) on election day. The design of the ballot will depend on the electoral system used in a country or state.

Best practice

A creative and sustainable practice that provide effective response based on the idea of direct knowledge utilisation, which can have potentials for replication as ?inspirational guideline? and contribute to policy development.

Best practice

A creative and sustainable practice that provide effective response based on the idea of direct knowledge utilisation, which can have potentials for replication as ?inspirational guideline? and contribute to policy development.

Blackout period

A ban on campaigning and/or polls before or during voting practiced by some countries. Also known as election silence or campaign silence.

Blackout period

A ban on campaigning and/or polls before or during voting practiced by some countries. Also known as election silence or campaign silence.

Boundary delimitation

The process for determining the way in which constituency or electoral area boundaries are drawn; it deals with the division of a country into electoral districts and the allocation of electors to electoral districts and polling sites. Sometimes called districting or boundary demarcation.

Boundary delimitation

The process for determining the way in which constituency or electoral area boundaries are drawn; it deals with the division of a country into electoral districts and the allocation of electors to electoral districts and polling sites. Sometimes called districting or boundary demarcation.

C

Campaign

Any form of political activity aimed to promote support for a candidate, political party or choice available to voters in preparation for an election or a direct democracy instrument during a defined campaign period, including meetings, rallies, speeches, parades, broadcasts, debates and other events, and the use of the media, the Internet or any other form of communication.

Campaign

Any form of political activity aimed to promote support for a candidate, political party or choice available to voters in preparation for an election or a direct democracy instrument during a defined campaign period, including meetings, rallies, speeches, parades, broadcasts, debates and other events, and the use of the media, the Internet or any other form of communication.

Candidate

A person who is nominated to contest an election either as a political party representative or independent of any political party?s support.

Candidate

A person who is nominated to contest an election either as a political party representative or independent of any political party?s support.

Candidate nomination

The process by which political parties/organisations and/or individual candidates submit their intention to compete in an election, often subject to meeting qualification criteria set out in the law.

Candidate nomination

The process by which political parties/organisations and/or individual candidates submit their intention to compete in an election, often subject to meeting qualification criteria set out in the law.

Candidate registration

The act of reviewing the validity of applications to participate in an election of candidates and accepting those that meet defined criteria.

Candidate registration

The act of reviewing the validity of applications to participate in an election of candidates and accepting those that meet defined criteria.

Carousel voting

The practice of one voter taking an unmarked ballot paper and delivering it for marking by an agent outside the polling station. Another voter takes the marked ballot paper, deposits it in the ballot box and takes his/her unmarked ballot paper back to the queue for marking by the agent to continue the process. Also known as ?caterpillar voting? or ?Tasmanian dodge?.

Carousel voting

The practice of one voter taking an unmarked ballot paper and delivering it for marking by an agent outside the polling station. Another voter takes the marked ballot paper, deposits it in the ballot box and takes his/her unmarked ballot paper back to the queue for marking by the agent to continue the process. Also known as ?caterpillar voting? or ?Tasmanian dodge?.

Civic education

An information and/or educational programme which is designed to increase the comprehension and knowledge of citizens? rights and responsibilities.

Civic education

An information and/or educational programme which is designed to increase the comprehension and knowledge of citizens? rights and responsibilities.

Civil society organisations

The wide array of non-governmental and not-for-profit organisations that have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, based on ethical, cultural, political, scientific, religious or philanthropic considerations. Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) therefore refer to a wide of array of organisations: community groups, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), labor unions, indigenous groups, charitable organisations, faith-based organisations, professional associations, and foundations.

Civil society organisations

The wide array of non-governmental and not-for-profit organisations that have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, based on ethical, cultural, political, scientific, religious or philanthropic considerations. Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) therefore refer to a wide of array of organisations: community groups, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), labor unions, indigenous groups, charitable organisations, faith-based organisations, professional associations, and foundations.

Claims

Complaints presented by different electoral actors to dispute resolution procedures in the course of the electoral process regarding decisions, actions, or lack of action by electoral administrators or other participants in the electoral process.

Claims

Complaints presented by different electoral actors to dispute resolution procedures in the course of the electoral process regarding decisions, actions, or lack of action by electoral administrators or other participants in the electoral process.

Coalition talks

Coalition talks are initiated in the post-election phase unless one political party or pre-election alliance wins an absolute majority of the seats in the legislature. In order to ensure that the government is supported by a majority of the legislators, political parties that have not formed pre-election alliances negotiate to form coalitions. During the coalition talks, the parties negotiate about cabinet seats, portfolio allocation, and a common policy programme.

Coalition talks

Coalition talks are initiated in the post-election phase unless one political party or pre-election alliance wins an absolute majority of the seats in the legislature. In order to ensure that the government is supported by a majority of the legislators, political parties that have not formed pre-election alliances negotiate to form coalitions. During the coalition talks, the parties negotiate about cabinet seats, portfolio allocation, and a common policy programme.

Code of conduct

A set of general rules of behaviour, for example for members and/or staff of an EMB, or for political parties, with respect to participation in an electoral process.

Code of conduct

A set of general rules of behaviour, for example for members and/or staff of an EMB, or for political parties, with respect to participation in an electoral process.

Complaint

The first document filed with the court by a person or entity claiming legal rights against another.

Complaint

The first document filed with the court by a person or entity claiming legal rights against another.

Crowdsourcing

Shorthand for the type of mass collaboration that modern information and communication technology has made possible. The basic idea of leveraging mass collaboration has been used in many projects. Facebook, for example, used crowdsourcing to develop the different language versions of its website. Local By Us is a website that provides crowd-sourced local news, events, opinions, and classifieds, and Ushahidi is a website created in the aftermath of the disputed 2007 presidential elections in Kenya which uses crowdsourcing to report and locate incidents of electoral violence.

Crowdsourcing

Shorthand for the type of mass collaboration that modern information and communication technology has made possible. The basic idea of leveraging mass collaboration has been used in many projects. Facebook, for example, used crowdsourcing to develop the different language versions of its website. Local By Us is a website that provides crowd-sourced local news, events, opinions, and classifieds, and Ushahidi is a website created in the aftermath of the disputed 2007 presidential elections in Kenya which uses crowdsourcing to report and locate incidents of electoral violence.

D

Direct democracy procedure

A legal arrangement which gives citizens the right to be directly involved in the political decision-making process. It may take one of three forms:
1. citizens voting on a public policy proposal originated elsewhere (referendum);
2. citizens setting the agenda by originating a public policy proposal themselves (initiative); and
3. citizens requesting and voting on the early termination of the period in office of one of the personnel of government (recall). Also known as a direct democracy instrument and a direct democracy mechanism.

Direct democracy procedure

A legal arrangement which gives citizens the right to be directly involved in the political decision-making process. It may take one of three forms:
1. citizens voting on a public policy proposal originated elsewhere (referendum);
2. citizens setting the agenda by originating a public policy proposal themselves (initiative); and
3. citizens requesting and voting on the early termination of the period in office of one of the personnel of government (recall). Also known as a direct democracy instrument and a direct democracy mechanism.

District magnitude

For an electoral district, the number of representatives to be elected from it.

District magnitude

For an electoral district, the number of representatives to be elected from it.

E

Election calendar

The election calendar is a tool for keeping the electoral process on track. It should assist the EMB in keeping its planning and preparation on schedule in order to meet its statutory and administrative deadlines. The calendar may be set in the constitution or electoral legislation, or determined by the electoral management body.

Election calendar

The election calendar is a tool for keeping the electoral process on track. It should assist the EMB in keeping its planning and preparation on schedule in order to meet its statutory and administrative deadlines. The calendar may be set in the constitution or electoral legislation, or determined by the electoral management body.

Election Violence Education and Resolution

The EVER project helps civil society organizations (CSOs) in a given country develop a toolkit to effectively monitor and prevent election violence in conjunction with election management bodies and security forces. The EVER project also tracks incidents of electoral violence in a global journal to which CSOs contribute source material.

Election Violence Education and Resolution

The EVER project helps civil society organizations (CSOs) in a given country develop a toolkit to effectively monitor and prevent election violence in conjunction with election management bodies and security forces. The EVER project also tracks incidents of electoral violence in a global journal to which CSOs contribute source material.

Electoral administration

The measures necessary for conducting or implementing any aspect of an electoral process.

Electoral administration

The measures necessary for conducting or implementing any aspect of an electoral process.

Electoral cycle

The full series of steps involved in the preparation and implementation of an election or direct democracy instrument, viewed as one event in a continuing series. In addition to the steps involved in a particular electoral process, it includes post-election evaluation and/or audit, the maintenance of institutional memory, and the process of consultation and planning of the forthcoming electoral process.

Electoral cycle

The full series of steps involved in the preparation and implementation of an election or direct democracy instrument, viewed as one event in a continuing series. In addition to the steps involved in a particular electoral process, it includes post-election evaluation and/or audit, the maintenance of institutional memory, and the process of consultation and planning of the forthcoming electoral process.

Electoral dispute

Any complaint, challenge, claim or contest relating to any stage of the electoral process.

Electoral dispute

Any complaint, challenge, claim or contest relating to any stage of the electoral process.

Electoral dispute resolution (EDR)

The process of hearing and adjudication of any complaint, electoral challenge, claim or contest relating to any stage of the electoral process.

Electoral dispute resolution (EDR)

The process of hearing and adjudication of any complaint, electoral challenge, claim or contest relating to any stage of the electoral process.

Electoral dispute resolution body (EDRB)

The body entrusted with defending electoral rights and resolving electoral disputes. These may be entrusted to administrative bodies, judicial bodies, legislative bodies, international bodies or, exceptionally, as a provincial or transitional arrangement, to ad hoc bodies.

Electoral dispute resolution body (EDRB)

The body entrusted with defending electoral rights and resolving electoral disputes. These may be entrusted to administrative bodies, judicial bodies, legislative bodies, international bodies or, exceptionally, as a provincial or transitional arrangement, to ad hoc bodies.

Electoral district

One of the geographic areas into which a country, local authority or supranational institution may be divided for electoral purposes. An electoral district may elect one or more representatives to an elected body.

Electoral district

One of the geographic areas into which a country, local authority or supranational institution may be divided for electoral purposes. An electoral district may elect one or more representatives to an elected body.

Electoral justice

The various means and mechanisms for ensuring that every action, procedure and decision related to the electoral process is in line with the law (the constitution, statute law, international instruments or treaties and all other provisions in force in a country), as well as those for protecting or restoring the enjoyment of electoral rights. Electoral justice gives people who believe their electoral rights to have been violated the ability to make a complaint, get a hearing and receive an adjudication.

Electoral justice

The various means and mechanisms for ensuring that every action, procedure and decision related to the electoral process is in line with the law (the constitution, statute law, international instruments or treaties and all other provisions in force in a country), as well as those for protecting or restoring the enjoyment of electoral rights. Electoral justice gives people who believe their electoral rights to have been violated the ability to make a complaint, get a hearing and receive an adjudication.

Electoral law

One or more pieces of legislation governing all aspects of the process for electing the political institutions defined in a country?s constitution or institutional framework.

Electoral law

One or more pieces of legislation governing all aspects of the process for electing the political institutions defined in a country?s constitution or institutional framework.

Electoral legal framework

The collection of legal structural elements defining or influencing an electoral process, the major elements being constitutional provisions, electoral laws, other legislation impacting on electoral processes, such as political party laws and laws structuring legislative bodies, subsidiary electoral rules and regulations, and codes of conduct.

Electoral legal framework

The collection of legal structural elements defining or influencing an electoral process, the major elements being constitutional provisions, electoral laws, other legislation impacting on electoral processes, such as political party laws and laws structuring legislative bodies, subsidiary electoral rules and regulations, and codes of conduct.

Electoral Management Body

An EMB is an organization or body which has been founded for the purpose of, and is legally responsible for, managing some or all of the essential (or core) elements for the conduct of elections, and of direct democracy instruments. These essential (or core) elements include determining who is eligible to vote, receiving and validating the nominations of electoral participants (for elections, political parties and/or candidates), conducting balloting, counting votes, and tabulating votes.

Electoral Management Body

An EMB is an organization or body which has been founded for the purpose of, and is legally responsible for, managing some or all of the essential (or core) elements for the conduct of elections, and of direct democracy instruments. These essential (or core) elements include determining who is eligible to vote, receiving and validating the nominations of electoral participants (for elections, political parties and/or candidates), conducting balloting, counting votes, and tabulating votes.

Electoral Management Body

An EMB is an organization or body which has been founded for the purpose of, and is legally responsible for, managing some or all of the essential (or core) elements for the conduct of elections, and of direct democracy instruments. These essential (or core) elements include determining who is eligible to vote, receiving and validating the nominations of electoral participants (for elections, political parties and/or candidates), conducting balloting, counting votes, and tabulating votes.

Electoral Management Body

An EMB is an organization or body which has been founded for the purpose of, and is legally responsible for, managing some or all of the essential (or core) elements for the conduct of elections, and of direct democracy instruments. These essential (or core) elements include determining who is eligible to vote, receiving and validating the nominations of electoral participants (for elections, political parties and/or candidates), conducting balloting, counting votes, and tabulating votes.

Electoral observation

A process under which observers are accredited to access an electoral process, and may assess and report on the compliance of the electoral process with relevant legal instruments and international and regional standards

Electoral observation

A process under which observers are accredited to access an electoral process, and may assess and report on the compliance of the electoral process with relevant legal instruments and international and regional standards

Electoral observer

A person accredited to witness and assess, but not intervene in, the proceedings of an electoral process.

Electoral observer

A person accredited to witness and assess, but not intervene in, the proceedings of an electoral process.

Electoral peace initiative

Initiative by state and non-state actors that promote peace and engage in mediation and conflict resolution around elections. These efforts should be tailored to address risk and tensions surrounding polling and counting processes. Specific peace campaigning activities can include the promotion of dialogue forums, with an aim to bring together political leaders and attain their pledge for non-violent resolution of electoral disputes.

Electoral peace initiative

Initiative by state and non-state actors that promote peace and engage in mediation and conflict resolution around elections. These efforts should be tailored to address risk and tensions surrounding polling and counting processes. Specific peace campaigning activities can include the promotion of dialogue forums, with an aim to bring together political leaders and attain their pledge for non-violent resolution of electoral disputes.

Electoral process

The series of steps involved in the preparation and carrying out of a specific election or direct democracy instrument. The electoral process usually includes the enactment of the electoral law, electoral registration, the nomination of candidates and/or political parties or the registration of proposals, the campaign, the voting, the counting and tabulation of votes, the resolution of electoral disputes and the announcement of results.

Electoral process

The series of steps involved in the preparation and carrying out of a specific election or direct democracy instrument. The electoral process usually includes the enactment of the electoral law, electoral registration, the nomination of candidates and/or political parties or the registration of proposals, the campaign, the voting, the counting and tabulation of votes, the resolution of electoral disputes and the announcement of results.

Electoral rights

Political rights which are enshrined in the basic or fundamental provisions of a particular legal order (generally in the constitution), in general relating to the political right to participate in the conduct of public affairs, directly or by means of freely elected representatives. The main electoral rights include the right to vote and to run for elective office, freedom of association, freedom of expression and freedom of assembly.

Electoral rights

Political rights which are enshrined in the basic or fundamental provisions of a particular legal order (generally in the constitution), in general relating to the political right to participate in the conduct of public affairs, directly or by means of freely elected representatives. The main electoral rights include the right to vote and to run for elective office, freedom of association, freedom of expression and freedom of assembly.

Electoral system

A set of rules and procedures which provides for the electorate to cast their votes and which translate these votes into seats for parties and candidates in the parliament or the legislature.

Electoral system

A set of rules and procedures which provides for the electorate to cast their votes and which translate these votes into seats for parties and candidates in the parliament or the legislature.

Electorate

The total number of electors (persons qualified and registered to vote in an election) registered to vote in an electoral district.

Electorate

The total number of electors (persons qualified and registered to vote in an election) registered to vote in an electoral district.

External voting

A mechanism by which voters who are permanently or temporarily absent from a country are enabled to cast a vote. Also called out-of-country voting.

External voting

A mechanism by which voters who are permanently or temporarily absent from a country are enabled to cast a vote. Also called out-of-country voting.

F

Family voting

One family member votes on behalf of other members of the family.

Family voting

One family member votes on behalf of other members of the family.

H

Hate speech

A communication that carries no meaning other than the expression of hatred for some group, especially in circumstances in which the communication is likely to provoke violence. It is an incitement to hatred primarily against a group of persons defined in terms of race, ethnicity, national origin, gender, religion, sexual orientation, and the like. Hate speech can be any form of expression regarded as offensive to racial, ethnic and religious groups and other discrete minorities or to women.

Hate speech

A communication that carries no meaning other than the expression of hatred for some group, especially in circumstances in which the communication is likely to provoke violence. It is an incitement to hatred primarily against a group of persons defined in terms of race, ethnicity, national origin, gender, religion, sexual orientation, and the like. Hate speech can be any form of expression regarded as offensive to racial, ethnic and religious groups and other discrete minorities or to women.

I

Independent candidate

A candidate for an elected position who is not nominated by a political party

Independent candidate

A candidate for an elected position who is not nominated by a political party

Infraction

The act or an instance of infringing a legal or administrative provision or regulation.

Infraction

The act or an instance of infringing a legal or administrative provision or regulation.

Initiative

A procedure which allows citizens to put forward a proposal. One form (citizens? initiative) leads to a vote of the electorate, a second (agenda initiative) to the consideration by the legislature or other specified authority.

Initiative

A procedure which allows citizens to put forward a proposal. One form (citizens? initiative) leads to a vote of the electorate, a second (agenda initiative) to the consideration by the legislature or other specified authority.

Intimidation

To make fearful or to put into fear. It may be inferred from conduct, words, or circumstances reasonably calculated to produce fear.

Intimidation

To make fearful or to put into fear. It may be inferred from conduct, words, or circumstances reasonably calculated to produce fear.

J

Joint Operation Centre

The establishment of a Joint Operation Centre has become a common feature of efforts to coordinate security and electoral operations. Normally established some months before an election, the Joint Operation Centre contains representatives from a range of institutions and acts as a nexus for information sharing, planning, briefing and monitoring the electoral process.

Joint Operation Centre

The establishment of a Joint Operation Centre has become a common feature of efforts to coordinate security and electoral operations. Normally established some months before an election, the Joint Operation Centre contains representatives from a range of institutions and acts as a nexus for information sharing, planning, briefing and monitoring the electoral process.

L

Legislation

The body of law made by the legislative process, also called statute law. Written laws passed by a Parliament, Congress or other legislative body at national or local level.

Legislation

The body of law made by the legislative process, also called statute law. Written laws passed by a Parliament, Congress or other legislative body at national or local level.

Liability

Obligations under law arising from civil actions or under contract. Legal liability can only be decided by courts even if the settlement is made out of the court by mutual agreement.

Liability

Obligations under law arising from civil actions or under contract. Legal liability can only be decided by courts even if the settlement is made out of the court by mutual agreement.

List Proportional Representation

A system in which each participant party or grouping presents a list of candidates for an electoral district, voters vote for a party, and parties receive seats in proportion to their overall share of the vote. Winning candidates are taken from the lists.

List Proportional Representation

A system in which each participant party or grouping presents a list of candidates for an electoral district, voters vote for a party, and parties receive seats in proportion to their overall share of the vote. Winning candidates are taken from the lists.

M

Marginalised communities

Minorities that have been discriminated against, resulting in particular problems, such as high rates of illiteracy, and low rates of obtaining citizenship documents and voter registration. Special measures may need to be taken to increase rates of participation by minorities.

Marginalised communities

Minorities that have been discriminated against, resulting in particular problems, such as high rates of illiteracy, and low rates of obtaining citizenship documents and voter registration. Special measures may need to be taken to increase rates of participation by minorities.

Media and results centre

A media and results centre can range in scale from a centre which is the primary source of supply of results and background information for national elections through to a centre established at local level dealing with the results for one council or region.

Media and results centre

A media and results centre can range in scale from a centre which is the primary source of supply of results and background information for national elections through to a centre established at local level dealing with the results for one council or region.

Mediation

A process in which the disputing parties use a third party to assist them in reaching a settlement of a dispute though a process which is private, informal and non-binding. The mediator has no power to impose a settlement, but attempts to assist the disputants in reaching consensus and agreement on a mutually acceptable resolution to the dispute.

Mediation

A process in which the disputing parties use a third party to assist them in reaching a settlement of a dispute though a process which is private, informal and non-binding. The mediator has no power to impose a settlement, but attempts to assist the disputants in reaching consensus and agreement on a mutually acceptable resolution to the dispute.

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

A memorandum of understanding (MOU) may be used as a confirmation of agreed upon terms when an oral agreement has not been reduced to a formal contract. It may also be a contract used to set forth the basic principles and guidelines under which the parties will work together to accomplish their goals.

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

A memorandum of understanding (MOU) may be used as a confirmation of agreed upon terms when an oral agreement has not been reduced to a formal contract. It may also be a contract used to set forth the basic principles and guidelines under which the parties will work together to accomplish their goals.

N

Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)

Any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level. NGOs are driven by people with a common interest and perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions. During elections, these groups? observation and reporting activities help make the process more transparent, for example by closely monitoring and publicly reporting on campaign finances, undertaking voter education programs, lobbying for electoral legislation protecting individual rights and freedoms etc.

Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)

Any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level. NGOs are driven by people with a common interest and perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions. During elections, these groups? observation and reporting activities help make the process more transparent, for example by closely monitoring and publicly reporting on campaign finances, undertaking voter education programs, lobbying for electoral legislation protecting individual rights and freedoms etc.

O

Open list

A form of List PR in which voters can express a preference both for a party or grouping and for one, or sometimes more, candidates within that party or grouping.

Open list

A form of List PR in which voters can express a preference both for a party or grouping and for one, or sometimes more, candidates within that party or grouping.

P

Parallel Vote Tabulation

A method for monitoring the tabulation of votes whereby election observers record results obtained from individual voting stations, as reported by election officials, and compare these findings with official results. The general purpose of a PVT is to verify the accuracy of the results reported by the electoral authorities as these results are transmitted from the local to central levels of the electoral administration.

Parallel Vote Tabulation

A method for monitoring the tabulation of votes whereby election observers record results obtained from individual voting stations, as reported by election officials, and compare these findings with official results. The general purpose of a PVT is to verify the accuracy of the results reported by the electoral authorities as these results are transmitted from the local to central levels of the electoral administration.

Patronage

The trade of votes and other types of partisan support in exchange for public decision with divisible benefits.

Patronage

The trade of votes and other types of partisan support in exchange for public decision with divisible benefits.

Political party registration

The act of enrolling political parties to participate in elections on the basis of eligibility criteria and submitted signatures and deposits.

Political party registration

The act of enrolling political parties to participate in elections on the basis of eligibility criteria and submitted signatures and deposits.

Polling station

A venue established for the purpose of polling and controlled by staff of the EMB. Also called a voting station.

Polling station

A venue established for the purpose of polling and controlled by staff of the EMB. Also called a voting station.

Pre-electoral coalition

A public statement by political parties that they intend to form a government with each other if they receive enough votes in the up-coming elections. By coordinating their campaigning strategies and sometimes even by harmonizing their political programmes, parties try to improve their chances to win as many seats as possible in the legislature. The forms of pre-electoral coalitions vary from party to party and from country to country, ranging from a loose promise to govern together to shared manifestos and voting recommendations.

Pre-electoral coalition

A public statement by political parties that they intend to form a government with each other if they receive enough votes in the up-coming elections. By coordinating their campaigning strategies and sometimes even by harmonizing their political programmes, parties try to improve their chances to win as many seats as possible in the legislature. The forms of pre-electoral coalitions vary from party to party and from country to country, ranging from a loose promise to govern together to shared manifestos and voting recommendations.

Proxy voting

A mechanism for voting in which an elector who is qualified to vote formally appoints another person to vote on his or her behalf.

Proxy voting

A mechanism for voting in which an elector who is qualified to vote formally appoints another person to vote on his or her behalf.

Public funding

Funds or resources provided by the government to political parties and/or candidates. Political parties and candidates should have equitable access to public funds, and the rules regarding public funding should be clearly stated in law. It is particularly important that there be no misuse of public resources by the incumbent party or candidate. Public funding is divided into direct public funding or indirect public funding, where direct public funding is given to political parties in the form of money and indirect public funding refers to resources with a monetary value that the government provides to political parties.

Public funding

Funds or resources provided by the government to political parties and/or candidates. Political parties and candidates should have equitable access to public funds, and the rules regarding public funding should be clearly stated in law. It is particularly important that there be no misuse of public resources by the incumbent party or candidate. Public funding is divided into direct public funding or indirect public funding, where direct public funding is given to political parties in the form of money and indirect public funding refers to resources with a monetary value that the government provides to political parties.

Purchasing process

Purchasing is the act of buying the goods and services that a company needs to operate and/or manufacture products. The traditional purchasing process involved several steps?requisition, soliciting bids, purchase order, shipping advice, invoice, and payment.

Purchasing process

Purchasing is the act of buying the goods and services that a company needs to operate and/or manufacture products. The traditional purchasing process involved several steps?requisition, soliciting bids, purchase order, shipping advice, invoice, and payment.

Q

Quick Count

During a quick count, observers watch the voting and counting processes at specifically selected polling stations, record key information on standardized forms and report their findings (including the polling station?s vote count) to a central data collection center. Quick count leaders use this information to evaluate the overall quality of election-day processes and to project, or verify, official election results based on precise analysis of polling station data.

Quick Count

During a quick count, observers watch the voting and counting processes at specifically selected polling stations, record key information on standardized forms and report their findings (including the polling station?s vote count) to a central data collection center. Quick count leaders use this information to evaluate the overall quality of election-day processes and to project, or verify, official election results based on precise analysis of polling station data.

Quota

May have one of two distinct meanings:

  1. The number of votes which guarantees a party or candidate to win one seat in a particular electoral district in a proportional representation system. There are three variants in common use, the Hare, Droop (or Hagenbach-Bischoff) and Imperiali quotas.
  2. A number of seats in an elected body or a proportion of candidates nominated by a party or grouping which are required by law to be filled by representatives of a particular kind; most commonly used to ensure the nomination and election of a minimum number of women.
Quota

May have one of two distinct meanings:
a. The number of votes which guarantees a party or candidate to win one seat in a particular electoral district in a proportional representation system. There are three variants in common use, the Hare, Droop (or Hagenbach-Bischoff) and Imperiali quotas.
b. A number of seats in an elected body or a proportion of candidates nominated by a party or grouping which are required by law to be filled by representatives of a particular kind; most commonly used to ensure the nomination and election of a minimum number of women.

Quota

May have one of two distinct meanings:

  1. The number of votes which guarantees a party or candidate to win one seat in a particular electoral district in a proportional representation system. There are three variants in common use, the Hare, Droop (or Hagenbach-Bischoff) and Imperiali quotas.
  2. A number of seats in an elected body or a proportion of candidates nominated by a party or grouping which are required by law to be filled by representatives of a particular kind; most commonly used to ensure the nomination and election of a minimum number of women.
Quota

May have one of two distinct meanings:
a. The number of votes which guarantees a party or candidate to win one seat in a particular electoral district in a proportional representation system. There are three variants in common use, the Hare, Droop (or Hagenbach-Bischoff) and Imperiali quotas.
b. A number of seats in an elected body or a proportion of candidates nominated by a party or grouping which are required by law to be filled by representatives of a particular kind; most commonly used to ensure the nomination and election of a minimum number of women.

R

Recall

A direct democracy instrument that allows a specified number of citizens to demand a vote of the electorate on whether an elected holder of public office should be removed from that office before the end of his/her term of office.

Recall

A direct democracy instrument that allows a specified number of citizens to demand a vote of the electorate on whether an elected holder of public office should be removed from that office before the end of his/her term of office.

Recount

A recalculation, in full or in part, of the votes cast in an election or direct democracy instrument.

Recount

A recalculation, in full or in part, of the votes cast in an election or direct democracy instrument.

Registered voter

An eligible voter inscribed in an official list or register of electors.

Registered voter

An eligible voter inscribed in an official list or register of electors.

Reserved seats

Seats in which a determinable criterion such as religion, ethnicity, language or gender is a requirement for nomination or election.

Reserved seats

Seats in which a determinable criterion such as religion, ethnicity, language or gender is a requirement for nomination or election.

S

Sanction

Measures taken by an institution in response to non-compliant or unacceptable behaviour.

Sanction

Measures taken by an institution in response to non-compliant or unacceptable behaviour.

Social media

Social media has the ability to reach a large number of people virally in a short period of time, enabling advocates to spread their message quickly to audiences to whom they might not otherwise have access. Current tools include Facebook and a multitude of other websites, SMS text messaging, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, and Foursquare.

Social media

Social media has the ability to reach a large number of people virally in a short period of time, enabling advocates to spread their message quickly to audiences to whom they might not otherwise have access. Current tools include Facebook and a multitude of other websites, SMS text messaging, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, and Foursquare.

Stakeholders

Those individuals and groups who depend on the organisation to fulfil their own goals and on whom, in turn, the organisation depends on for legitimacy. Such individuals and groups may have a multitude of interests, expectations, and demands as to what a particular organisation must provide to society. In short, stakeholders are those who affect and are affected by the actions of an organisation.

Stakeholders

Those individuals and groups who depend on the organisation to fulfil their own goals and on whom, in turn, the organisation depends on for legitimacy. Such individuals and groups may have a multitude of interests, expectations, and demands as to what a particular organisation must provide to society. In short, stakeholders are those who affect and are affected by the actions of an organisation.

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT)

A technique commonly used in planning, which creates a realistic assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the process by listing and evaluating strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT)

A technique commonly used in planning, which creates a realistic assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the process by listing and evaluating strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

T

Tabulation

The process of compiling the result of counting of votes cast in an electoral process.

Tabulation

The process of compiling the result of counting of votes cast in an electoral process.

Threshold

The minimum level of support which a party needs to gain representation in the legislature. A threshold may be a formal threshold, which is a figure laid down in the constitution or the law, usually in the form of a percentage of the valid votes cast, or an effective or natural threshold, which is a mathematical property of the electoral
system in use.

Threshold

The minimum level of support which a party needs to gain representation in the legislature. A threshold may be a formal threshold, which is a figure laid down in the constitution or the law, usually in the form of a percentage of the valid votes cast, or an effective or natural threshold, which is a mathematical property of the electoral
system in use.

V

Vet

Conducting a thorough and diligent review of a prospective person or project prior to a hiring or investment decision.

Vet

Conducting a thorough and diligent review of a prospective person or project prior to a hiring or investment decision.

Vote buying

Any reward given to a person for voting in a particular way or for not voting can be called vote buying.

Vote buying

Any reward given to a person for voting in a particular way or for not voting can be called vote buying.

Voter list

The official records maintained by central or local election officials of persons registered to vote in either the most recent national or local elections

Voter list

The official records maintained by central or local election officials of persons registered to vote in either the most recent national or local elections

Voter registration

The process of establishing the eligibility of individuals to cast a ballot in an electoral process or direct democracy instrument and inscribing eligible individuals on a register. As one of the more costly, time-consuming and complex aspects of the electoral process, it often accounts for a considerable portion of the budget, staff time and resources of an election authority.

Voter registration

The process of establishing the eligibility of individuals to cast a ballot in an electoral process or direct democracy instrument and inscribing eligible individuals on a register. As one of the more costly, time-consuming and complex aspects of the electoral process, it often accounts for a considerable portion of the budget, staff time and resources of an election authority.

W

Women's rights

Rights relating to women such as equality in political and public life, equality in employment, equality before the law, and equality in marriage and family relations

Women's rights

Rights relating to women such as equality in political and public life, equality in employment, equality before the law, and equality in marriage and family relations